Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine utilized in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor outcomes of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore powder and spores oil, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms by observing the consequences of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The outcomes showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also called Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is one of most frequently used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and clinical studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in their fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a mixture of aqueous and ethanol extracts from the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which was taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes active in the regulation of DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression has been connected to numerous human malignancies and it is the objective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In the event that topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and during cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study indicated that the active components of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The current study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were supplied by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Technology and science Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to make solutions of varied concentrations, which were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of Coriolus Versicolor Extract were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the effect of Ganoderma on tumors has been increasingly studied. The current study revealed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the development from the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects within the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since ancient times, Ganoderma continues to be popular as being a popular herbal medicine for that promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain impact on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of the primary aspects of Ganoderma extract is really a polysaccharide which has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). As there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) within the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident influence on immunity. The present study also indicated that the antitumor results of Ganoderma may be safer in contrast to 5-FU, which resulted in the decreased body weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To investigate the possible mechanism of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, the results of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases really are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases modify the degree of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Both of these activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, when the DNA helix has to be unwound to allow proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For instance, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, such as doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.